ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH

ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH (1911–2005), physicist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Rotblat was born in Warsaw, Poland, and became a U.K. citizen in 1945. He graduated with an M.A. in physics from the Free University of Poland (1932) and a doctorate in physics from the University of Warsaw (1938). He worked in the Warsaw Radiological Laboratory before joining James Chadwick as an Oliver Lodge Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool (1939). His work helped to establish, firstly, that a sustained fissile chain reaction could follow the bombardment of uranium with neutrons, and secondly, that this reaction produced the transuranic element later named plutonium. Subsequently in 1944, he joined the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos but returned to the U.K. the same year because of moral scruples about producing nuclear weapons once it was clear that the Germans could not do so. He was the only project member who left on moral grounds. He was director of research in nuclear physics at Liverpool University (1945–49) before becoming professor of physics at St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, University of London, and chief physicist at St. Bartholomew's Hospital (1950–76), after which he became emeritus professor. During this period he pursued research on the biological effects of irradiation and the clinical applications of radioisotopes resulting in notable papers on subjects such as the diagnosis of thyroid disease and the deleterious effects of the bone-seeking isotope strontium-90. His concerns over the potential catastrophic effects of nuclear weapons were enhanced by his analysis of the radioactive fallout from hydrogen bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. This led him to sign the Russell-Einstein manifesto of 1955 warning about the consequences of war involving nuclear weapons. In 1957 Rotblat and Bertrand Russell founded the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, an international organization of scientists and others seeking solutions to global security threats and ultimately to eliminate nuclear weapons. In 1995 he and the Pugwash Conference shared the Nobel Peace Prize. He continued to express his concerns over nuclear and biological warfare after the Cold War ended and continually stressed the social responsibilities of scientists. His honors include the C.B.E. (1985), the Albert Einstein Peace Prize (1992), belated election to the Royal Society (1995), and a knighthood (1998). His wife, the former Tola Gryn, was unable to join him in 1939 and perished in the Nazi occupation of Poland. (Michael Denman (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Rotblat, Sir Joseph — ▪ 2006       Polish born British physicist (b. Nov. 4, 1908, Warsaw, Pol., Russian Empire [now in Poland] d. Aug. 31, 2005, London, Eng.), served as founding secretary general (1957–73) and later as president (1988–97) of the Pugwash (N.S.)… …   Universalium

  • Joseph Rotblat — Infobox Scientist name = Joseph Rotblat KCMG CBE FRS image size = 130px caption = ID badge photo from Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1944. birth date = birth date|1908|11|4|df=y birth place = Warsaw, flagicon|POL Poland, death date = Death date… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Rotblat — Józef Rotblat (Foto auf seinem Los Alamos Dienstausweis während des 2. Weltkriegs) Sir Józef Rotblat (* 4. November 1908 in Łódź; † 31. August 2005 in London; auch: Josef oder Joseph Rotblat) war ein polnisch britischer Physiker. Als Kernphysi …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rotblat — Józef Rotblat (Foto auf seinem Los Alamos Dienstausweis während des 2. Weltkriegs) Sir Józef Rotblat (* 4. November 1908 in Łódź; † 31. August 2005 in London; auch: Josef oder Joseph Rotblat) war ein polnisch britischer Physiker. Als Kernphy …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Józef Rotblat — (Foto auf seinem Los Alamos Dienstausweis während des Zweiten Weltkrieges) Sir Józef Rotblat (* 4. November 1908 in Warschau[1]; † 31. August 2005 in London; auch: Josef oder Joseph Rotblat) war ein polnisch britischer Physiker. Als Kernphysiker… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Friedensnobelpreis 1995: Joseph Rotblat — Internationale Pugwash-Konferenz —   Die Pugwash Bewegung wurde mit dem Physiker Joseph Rotblat aufgrund des jahrzehntelangen weltweiten Einsatzes für die Abschaffung aller Kernwaffen geehrt.    Biografien   Joseph Rotblat, * Warschau 4. 11. 1908; 1939 Emigration nach …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Nobel Prize winners by name — ▪ Table Nobel Prize winners by name A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Y   Z A name year category country* achievement literary area Abrikosov, Alexey A. 2003 physics U.S. discoveries… …   Universalium

  • Nobel Prize winners by year — ▪ Table Nobel Prize winners by year 1901–10 1941–50 1981–90 1911–20 1951–60 1991–2000 1921–30 1961–70 2001–08 1931–40 1971–80 1901–10 year category name country* achievement literary area 1901 chemistry Henricus van t (Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van… …   Universalium

  • Nobel Prize winners by name 2 — ▪ Table Nobel Prize winners by name (P through R) name year category country* achievement literary area Palade, George E. 1974 physiology/ medicine U.S. research on structural and functional organization of cells Pamuk, Orhan 2006 literature… …   Universalium

  • Nobel Prize winners by year 5 — ▪ Table Nobel Prize winners by year (1991–2000) year category name country* achievement literary area 1991 chemistry Ernst, Richard R. Switzerland improvements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy economics Coase, Ronald U.S. application of …   Universalium

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